要怎麼用英文解釋那個超愛抱怨的____?三分鐘讓你的文法充滿負能量

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認識StringNet

首頁圖來源:monicore

線上語料庫是甚麼?

英語線上語料庫(corpus)是新興的英語學習工具。傳統字典的例句及教科書的文章大多是為教學而刻意寫作,常被質疑和英美人士實際使用的英文不盡相同,英語線上語料庫則是蒐集真實語料如英美國家的報章雜誌,將其中的單字或片語加以整理彙編,透過網路提供使用者在線上搜尋某一個單字或片語出現的所有句子。目前世界各種語言有許多已經建立其語料庫,英語最大的語料庫則是BNC(British National Corpus)(http://www.natcorp. ox.ac.uk/)語料庫,內容涵蓋英美國家的報章雜誌、學術論文、小說、廣播節目等真實語料,蒐集單字量超過一億。英語學習者可以藉由語料庫查詢單字及片語的上下文及其前後出現的搭配詞,以了解精準意義及用法,以此方式能夠學習真實世界的英語用法,特別在英文寫作的遣詞用字上有明顯裨益。

StringNet是甚麼?  

在BNC語料庫中,英文單字與片語只有經過簡單初步的彙整,後來拜科技之賜,有一些學者把BNC的內容作進一步詳細的分類,能夠查詢更多資訊,本書採用的StringNet(http://www.lexchecker.org/index.php)是國立中央大學特聘研究講座David Wible教授主持創立的多功能英語線上語料庫查詢系統,內容以BNC(British National Corpus)語料庫為主,整理其中單字及片語,計算某個單字在語料庫出現的次數,若該單字有二種詞類,亦分別計算列出,以recruit為例,它可以當動詞和名詞,其動詞出現1934次,名詞出現871次;也分析某單字常常和那些搭配詞一起使用,提供片語字串,如recruit from和recruit new members等;還可依搭配詞的詞類分別檢索,並顯示搭配詞在語料庫中出現的次數從最多到最少,如recruit當動詞時後面出現的複數名詞有staff(28次)、people(21次)、members(13次)、student(9次)、workers(6次)、women(6次)等等,其中staff出現最多次,由此可知這二個字時常一起使用;除了顯示和常用搭配詞形成的字串以外,StringNet也提供包含某單字或片語的所有完整句子。如果讀者有興趣多暸解StringNet可參閱下列文章:

David Wible, Anne Li-er Liu, and Nai-Lung Tsao (2011) “A Browserbased Approach to Incidental Individualization of Vocabulary Learning,” Journal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning. 

David Wible and Nai-Lung Tsao (2011) “Towards a New Generation of Corpus-derived Lexical Resources for Language Learning,” in F. Meunier (ed.) A Taste of Corpora. pp. 237-255, Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Anne Li-Er Liu, David Wible and Nai-Lung Tsao (2011) “A Corpusbased Approach to Automatic Feedback for Leaners’ Miscollocations,” in A. Frankenberg-Garcia, L. Flowerdew, and G. Aston (eds.) New Trends in Corpora and Langauge Learning. pp. 107-120, London: Continuum.

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Unit 7 抱怨

StringNet語料庫出現次數

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complaint (n.)

常用句型
S+file/lodge/submit+a complaint

例句
They lodged a formal complaint to the hospital about their ambulance service.
他們對醫院的救護車服務提出正式的抗議。
There have been numerous complaints against local government service.
已有很多人對地方政府的服務表示不滿意。

常用搭配詞
adj.+complaint
official, formal, few, main, often-repeated, British, general, quiet, endless, vitriolic, many, further, total, pained, individual, similar, well-known, specific, original, constant, querulous, self-righteous, genuine, common, intra-marital, populist, numerous, principal, frequent, bitter, usual, widespread, overall, major, innumerable, occasional, outstanding, several.
v.+complaint  
receive, follow, investigate, have, make, get, hear, resolve, handle, lodge, answer, oversee, press, bring, produce, face, consider, determine, register, avoid, uphold, side.

complain (vi.)

常用句型
S+complain+that 子句
S+complain about/of something
S+complain to+somebody

例句
She got up at 11 a.m., still complaining of feeling tired.
她上午11點才起床,還在喊累。
The customer complained to the manager about the bad attitude of the clerk.
這顧客向經理抱怨店員的態度不佳。

常用搭配詞
complain about the + n. (of)
lack, way, noise, state, cost, quality, price, government, size, service, time, loss, security, waiting, difficulty, weather, heat.
complain+adv.  
bitterly, loudly, mightily, vociferously, mildly, afterwards, repeatedly, publicly, effectively.

mutter (vi.)

常用句型
S + mutter about something

例句
The sick boy muttered about not being able to play outside with his friends.
這生病的男孩低聲抱怨不能和他的朋友到外面玩。

常用搭配詞
mutter about + N.
the unemployment, ingratitude, the ugly face, a neighborhood crime, storm for days, having to consult with his brother, his days in Paris.
mutter + adv.
darkly, thickly, hoarsely, ungraciously, quietly, angrily, fiercely, irritably, incoherently, softly, harshly, huskily, savagely, anxiously, grimly, gloomily, loudly, gruffly, aloud, abstractedly, rebelliously, acidly, silently, hopefully, crossly, impatiently, bitterly, defiantly, sourly.

moan (vi.)

常用句型
S + moan about something
S + moan that + 子句
S + moan at somebody(英式英文,表示嘮叨)

例句
Julia moaned about her boyfriend not taking her out enough.
Julia哀嘆她的男友很少帶她出去。
His wife is always moaning at him.
他的妻子老愛對他發牢騷。
My husband moaned that I spent too much money.
我先生抱怨我花太多錢了。

常用搭配詞
moan + adv.
softly, quietly, away, loudly, aloud, gently, hoarsely, helplessly.
moan about + N
the state of, declining standard, how fat she is, being in the group, the unemployment figures, the present, being picked up, the lack of.
moan at + n. each other, me, you, their team.

grumble (vi. / vt.)

常用句型
S + grumble about/at something or somebody
S + grumble that + 子句

例句
She grumbled about the hot weather all the way.
她一路上都在抱怨天氣熱。

常用搭配詞
grumble about the + n.
disruption, weight, decision, unavailability, hardship, treatment.
grumble at + (det.) n.
me, grandmother, stiffness, her, nature, change.
grumble + adv.
loudly, incessantly, aloud, quietly, privately.

whine (vi. / vt.)

常用句型
S + whine about something

例句
The old man whined about his back pain.
這老先生因為背痛哀鳴。

常用搭配詞
whine about + (det.) n.
condition, cost, encroachment, memory, health.
whine + adv.
away, somewhere, softly, viciously, faintly, angrily.

bemoan (vt.)

常用句型
S + bemoan the 名詞 of something
S + bemoan the fact that + 子句

例句
The villager bemoaned the lack of medical resources.
村民悲嘆醫療資源的不足。
She bemoaned the fact that she had not been born one hundred years earlier.
她哀嘆自己不是在一百年前出生。

常用搭配詞
bemoan the n. (of)
fact, lack, absence, loss.

綜合整理

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本文節錄自《英語辭彙不NG──StringNet教你使用英文同義字》,原作者李路得

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